The essay argues that there has been a cognitive dissonance between the country’s formal education system (adal) and the Ilokano people’s vocation to knowledge (sursuro). Unless this dissonance is addressed, fundamental problems relative to education in democracy, social justice, and inclusion will never be solved. The Ilokano people’s sense of education—sursuro—shows us the way to correct that dissonance.


adal, common good, democracy, education, kinalinteg, social justice, sursuro

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